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History of Tobacco Impacting African-American Communities


1 Hafez N, Ling PM. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):359–366. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.014258

2 Phillip S. Gardiner, The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 6, Issue Suppl_1, February 2004, Pages S55–S65, https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200310001649478

3 Center for Public Health Systems Science. Point-of-Sale Strategies: A Tobacco Control Guide. St. Louis: Center for Public Health Systems Science, George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis and the Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, 2014 [accessed 2019 September 27].

4 American Psychological Association: Health Disparities Initiatives programs and initiatives: Tobacco Health Disparities. December 2014. [accessed 2019 September 27.]

5 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998 [accessed 2019 September 27].

6 Hafez N, Ling PM. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):359–366. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.014258

7 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998. [accessed 2019 September 27].

8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998. [accessed 2019 September 27].

9 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998. [accessed 2019 September 27].

10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998. [accessed 2019 September 27].

11 Phillip S. Gardiner, The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 6, Issue Suppl_1, February 2004, Pages S55–S65.

12 Yerger VB, Malone RE. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy. Tobacco Control 2002;11:336-345. https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/11/4/336

13 Hafez, Navid, and Pamela M Ling. “Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes.” Tobacco control vol. 15,5 (2006): 359-66. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.014258

14 “Kool Music Program – Background Information.” http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ofn14f00.

15 Unknown. KOOL MUSIC PROGRAM – BACKGROUND INFORMATION. 1980 January. Brown & Williamson Records. Unknown. https://www.industrydocuments.ucsf.edu/docs/xryx0134

16 Government relations/PR plan: Project UT. Marketing fact sheet. RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co. 1989. Bates No. 507727693/7695. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ixv14d00. [accessed 2019 September 27].

17 Government relations/PR plan: Project UT. Marketing fact sheet. RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co. 1989. Bates No. 507727693/7695. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ixv14d00. [accessed 2019 September 27].

18 Government relations/PR plan: Project UT. Marketing fact sheet. RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co. 1989. Bates No. 507727693/7695. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ixv14d00.[accessed 2019 September 27].

19 RJR. THE NEW JAZZ PHILOSOPHY TOUR 2006 (20060000) MUSIC KNOWS NO LIMITS. 2006. RJ Reynolds Records. Unknown. https://www.industrydocuments.ucsf.edu/docs/llnf0019

20 Company News; Reynolds Settles Suits in 3 States Over Cigarette Ads. The New York Times. 7 Oct. 2004. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0DE1D9173BF934A3575

21 “Black musicians”. http://tobacco.stanford.edu/tobacco_main/images_body.php?token1=fm_img16986.php. [accessed 2019 September 27].

22 Office of the New York Attorney General. Landmark Settlement of “kool Mixx” Tobacco Lawsuits. https://ag.ny.gov/press-release/landmark-settlement-kool-mixx-tobacco-lawsuits. [accessed 2019 September 27].

23 Giovino GA, Villanti AC, Mowery PD et al. Differential Trends in Cigarette Smoking in the USA: Is Menthol Slowing Progress? Tobacco Control, doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051159, August 30, 2013

24 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Preliminary Scientific Evaluation of the Possible Public Health Effects of Menthol Versus Nonmenthol Cigarettes, July 2013.

25 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998 [accessed 2019 September 27].

26 Ton HT, Smart AE, Aguilar BL, et al. Menthol enhances the desensitization of human alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Mol Pharmacol 2015;88(2):256-64 [cited 2017 Oct 27].

27 Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. Menthol Cigarettes and Public Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration; 2011.

28 Center for Public Health Systems Science. Point-of-Sale Strategies: A Tobacco Control Guide. St. Louis: Center for Public Health Systems Science, George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis and the Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, 2014 [accessed 2019 September 27].

29 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998 [accessed 2019 September 27].

30 Laestadius, Linnea & Sebero, Heather & Myers, Allison & Mendez, Edgar & Auer, Paul. (2018). Identifying Disparities and Policy Needs with the STARS Surveillance Tool. Tobacco Regulatory Science. 4. 12-21. 10.18001/TRS.4.4.2.

31 Rodriguez, D, et al., “Predictors of tobacco outlet density nationwide: a geographic analysis,” Tobacco Control,published online first on April 4, 2012.See also Lee, JGL, et al., “Inequalities in tobacco outlet density by race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, 2012, USA: results from the ASPIRE Study,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, published online March 1, 2017

32 US Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among US Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.

33 Ho, J. Y., & Elo, I. T. (2013). The contribution of smoking to black-white differences in U.S. mortality. Demography, 50(2), 545–568. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0159-z

34 American Psychological Association: Health Disparities Initiatives programs and initiatives: Tobacco Health Disparities. December 2014. [accessed 2019 September 27].

35 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998 [accessed 2019 September 27].

36 Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final Data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 2016;vol 65: no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics [accessed 2019 September 27].

37 Heron, M. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2010. National Vital Statistics Reports, 2013;62(6) [accessed 2019 September 27].

38 Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final Data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 2016;vol 65: no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics [accessed 2019 September 27].

39 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2019 September 27].

40 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998 [accessed 2019 September 27].

41 Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final Data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 2016;vol 65: no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics [accessed 2019 September 27].

42 Heron, M. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2010. National Vital Statistics Reports, 2013;62(6) [accessed 2019 September 27.

43 Schoenborn CA, Adams PF, Peregoy JA. Health Behaviors of Adults: United States, 2008–2010. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(257) [accessed 2019 September 27].

44 American Lung Association. Too Many Cases, Too Many Deaths: Lung Cancer in African Americans. Washington, D.C.: American Lung Association, 2010 [accessed 2019 September 27].



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